The Role of EFL Learners’ Autonomy, Motivation and Self-efficacy in Using Technology-based Out-of-Class Language Learning Activities
This study aims to identify which technology-based out-of-class activities are more commonly used by Iranian EFL learners outside language classrooms. Furthermore, it explored the relationship between the use of technology-based out-of-class language learning activities (TBOCLLAs) by EFL learners and three individual learner characteristics such as motivation, autonomy and self-efficacy. The participants of the study consisted of 100 Iranian EFL learners who were asked to take part in the study by filling out four questionnaires regarding TBOCLLAs, motivation, autonomy, and self-efficacy. The results revealed that among different TBOCLLAs, receptive activities were relatively more frequent among learners than productive ones. Results also indicated that there was a strong positive correlation between technology-based out-of-class language learning activities and Iranian EFL learners’ motivation levels. Moreover, it was found that there was a strong correlation between TBOCLLAs and the EFL learners’ autonomy. In the same vein, the findings revealed a strong and statistically significant correlation between TBOCLLAs and the learners’ self-efficacy. Finally, the research findings suggested that learners’ motivation, autonomy, and self-efficacy were all significantly contributing to the participants' use of technology-based out-of-class language learning activities. Among the above mentioned individual factors, motivation had the highest predictive value, and among self-efficacy and autonomy, the latter could better predict the use of TBOCLLAs by the learners.
Honarzad, R., & Rassaei, E. (2019). The Role of EFL Learners’ Autonomy, Motivation and Self-efficacy in Using Technology-based Out-of-Class Language Learning Activities. The JALT CALL Journal, 15(3), 23-42. https://doi.org/10.29140/jaltcall.v15n3.170